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Two strains of a gram-positively staining, obligately anaerobic, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strains 111-13A and 111-35T, were isolated from human faeces. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that these strains were members of the Clostridium coccoides rRNA group of organisms. The nearest relatives of the unknown bacterium were Eubacterium formicigenerans (having a sequence similarity of 94%) and an uncultured bacterium (similarity > 99%). Characterization studies indicated that the unidentified faecal bacterium was biochemically distinct from Eubacterium formicigenerans, members of the Clostridium coccoides group and all other described Eubacterium species. On the basis of the data from these studies, it is proposed that the hitherto unknown rod-shaped bacterium be designated a species of a novel genus, namely Dorea longicatena gen. nov., sp. nov., and that Eubacterium formicigenerans be transferred to this genus as Dorea formicigenerans gen. nov., comb. nov.