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1. Muscle protein turnover was measured in broilers fed on rye-based diets containing either beef tallow (T) or soybean oil (S) at an inclusion rate of 100 g/kg. Each of these diet types was tested either in the absence (S[-], T[-]) or presence (S[+], T[+]) of a xylanase-containing enzyme preparation. Protein turnover was measured in gastrocnemius muscle (GM) and pectoralis major muscle (PM). 2. Fractional rate of protein synthesis (FSR) was measured by the large dose technique using [15N]-labelled phenylalanine whereas fractional protein growth rate (FGR) was estimated by regressing tissue protein content over time. Fractional breakdown rates (FBR) were calculated by the difference between FSR and FGR. 3. In PM, FSR (%/d) was 22.1, 23.4, 21.5 and 24.4 in groups S[-], S[+], T[-] and T[+], respectively, and FBR (%/d) was 8.3, 9.8, 4.5 and 10.8 with the xylanase effect being significant. The FGR of 17.0%/d calculated for the broilers fed on the T[-] diet tended to be higher than for the other groups (13.6 to 13.8%/d). No significant effects were detected for these parameters in the GM. 4. The absolute amounts of protein which were synthesised daily and accreted in both muscles were significantly higher with xylanase supplementation in both fat type diets but at a significantly higher level when soybean oil was the dietary fat type. 5. The observed effects on protein turnover have to be seen in the context of an overall adverse effect of dietary soluble pentosans from rye in combination with tallow on physico-chemical chyme conditions, digestion and absorption of energy and nutrients and tissue-specific metabolic changes.