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The objective of this study was to follow the mycotoxin formation and changes in nutrient composition of wheat (cv. Ritmo) artificially inoculated with Fusarium culmorum. From anthesis until harvest, samples were taken once a week from the inoculated and control plots. The investigations were focused on monitoring the progression of the contamination of the wheat kernels with deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON). Both the uncontaminated control kernels and the contaminated kernels were examined also for the presence of zearalenone-4-beta-D-glucopyranoside and several trichothecenes at harvest. Furthermore, the impact of the Fusarium inoculation on some nutrients as starch, crude protein, amino acid composition, crude ash, non starch polysaccharides (NSP) as well as viscosity and thousand seed weight (TSW) was examined. Also proteolytic and amylolytic activity as well as the NSP-degrading enzyme activities of inoculated and control samples were analysed at the time of harvest. DON was detected in higher concentrations and in earlier stages, while ZON was found later and in smaller amounts. On average 7.79 mg/kg DM of DON and 100 microg/kg DM of ZON were found in the inoculated kernels at the time of harvest. Neither in the contaminated nor in the control samples glucose conjugates of ZON (Zearalenone-4-beta-D-glucopyranoside) were detected. Moreover, the infection with Fusarium culmorum had pronounced effects on some quality parameters. The crude protein content of the inoculated kernels showed significantly higher values over the whole period compared to the control kernels. The protein content of the inoculated kernels amounted 13.9% DM at harvest, while only a concentration of 12.5% DM was detected in the control samples. Similarly, in almost all stages of development the crude ash content of inoculated samples was higher than in control samples. These distinct differences in kernel composition resulted possibly from the changes of the thousand seed weight. In the present work the grain harvested from the control plots showed a significantly higher TSW (24.2 g) as compared to their inoculated counterparts (15.5 g). Despite lower extract viscosity of inoculated samples at time of harvest, the content of soluble NSP of inoculated plots was higher than in control samples at the same time. Moreover, inoculation resulted in markedly increased activities of protease, amylase and several NSP-degrading enzyme activities. This would suggest that the cell wall penetrating properties of the fungus itself and/or that the fungus induced alterations of the metabolic activity of the embryo or other constituents of the wheat kernel could be responsible.