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The aim of this study was to investigate differences in concentrations of vitamin A, transthyretin (TTR) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in dogs. RBP was detected using ELISA, and both RBP and TTR by Western blot analysis after separation on SDS-PAGE. Vitamin A was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. RBP and TTR as well as vitamin A were detected in all samples but at substantially lower concentrations in CSF compared to plasma. RBP in dog plasma showed a similar molecular mass to that of humans, whereas canine TTR had a lower molecular mass. Comparison between plasma and CSF showed that both RBP and TTR were of lower molecular mass in CSF. In CSF, RBP and retinol were present at 10-100-fold lower concentrations compared to plasma. Retinyl esters were present only in minute amounts in 5/17 samples. In conclusion, the CSF of dogs compared to humans is significantly different in terms of both quality and quantity of transport proteins for vitamin A.