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    Vergleichende Untersuchung über die Auswirkungen von Laufflächenbelegen aus Gummi und Beton auf Klauenhornqualität, Hornnachschub und -abrieb, Nettohornwachstum, Lahmheit und Klauengesundheit von Milchrindern in Laufstallhaltung (2010)

    Art
    Hochschulschrift
    Autor
    Guhl, E
    Quelle
    Berlin: Mensch und Buch Verl, 2010 — 237 Seiten
    ISBN: 978-3-86664-796-1
    Kontakt
    Klinik für Klauentiere

    Königsweg 65
    Gebäude 26
    14163 Berlin
    +49 30 838 62261
    klauentierklinik@vetmed.fu-berlin.de

    Abstract / Zusammenfassung

    A cohort study was performed on 150 HF X Black Pied crossbred dairy cattle in order to compare the effects of rubber flooring and solid concrete floors on claw horn quality, horn growth and wear, net growth, lameness and claw health. To this end on a dairy farm with 628 dairy cattle one of two identical buildings was established with rubber flooring (KURA P®, Gummiwerk Kraiburg Elastik GmbH, Tittmoning/ Obb.). After calving the animals were either assigned to the group housed in the building with rubber flooring or the building with solid concrete floors. No differences existed between the two groups with respect to hygiene management and food and water supply. Approximately two weeks before calving heifers were transported to the dairy farm from a rearing farm, where the latter animals had been kept solely on straw bedding. In contrast, the dairy cows of the second and higher lactations on the farm already had a history of being kept alternately on free stalls with concrete flooring or straw bedding. The observation period lasted 15 weeks for single animals being kept either on rubber flooring or solid concrete floors. It started with functional claw trimming. At clawtrimming and at the end of the observational period documentation of claw lesions using the DLG-Score took place and horn samples were obtained from the sole segment of the right lateral hind claw, which were examined by light microscopy. The number of horn tubules per mm², the diameter of the horn tubules as well as the relation between the area of the marrow zone and the cortex of the different tubules were determined. In addition net horn growth was determined from wear and growth characteristics of the claw horn at the dorsal wall. Lameness scoring (Sprecher et al., 1997) took place in two-week intervals. Claw health was evaluated by recording new cases of claw disorders that had occurred during the observation period and the cure rate.
    The number of horn tubules per mm² of first, second and third or higher lactation cattle ranged from 22 to 28, 34 to 40, 39 to 44, respectively in the group of animals kept on rubber floors compared to 31 to 33, 33 to 39, 35 to 46, respectively on solid concrete floors. At the end of the observation period the number of horn tubules for calved heifers kept on rubber flooring was lower than for the same group of animals kept on solid concrete floors. As the number of horn tubules is genetically fixed, the lower number of horn tubules in the group housed on rubber was thought to be the consequence of a higher water content of the horn located between the tubules leading to larger distances between the single horn tubules. The latter effect was not observed in animals with lactation numbers of two and higher. Horn from the sole segment of animals of the first lactation belonging either to the group kept on rubber or on solid concrete floors had lower numbers of horn tubules than cattle of lactation two and higher.
    The diameter of horn tubules of first, second and third or higher lactation cattle ranged from 76 ?m to 78 ?m, 58 ?m to 62 ?m, 62 ?m to 62 ?m, respectively in the group of animals kept on rubber floors compared to 61 ?m to 63 ?m, 51 ?m to 51 ?m, 47 ?m to 50 ?m, respectively on solid concrete floors. With respect to the diameter of horn tubules no differences were observed between cattle kept on rubber floors or solid concrete floors. In addition there were no significant changes in the relation between the areas of the marrow zone to the cortex of the horn tubules between the two groups. The diameter of horn tubules being larger for cattle of the first lactation in either group suggests that the animals have also larger dermal papillae. The relation between the area of the marrow zone and the cortex of the different tubules ranged from 1.74 to 1.90, 1.91 to 1.87, 1.69 to 1.77, respectively in the group of animals kept on rubber floors compared to 1.93 to 2.00, 1.96 to 2.14, 1.91 to 2.00, respectively on solid concrete floors. With respect to the relation between the area of the marrow zone and the cortex of the different tubules no differences were observed between cattle kept on rubber floors or solid concrete floors.
    The monthly horn growth of first, second and third or higher lactation cattle were 4.4 mm, 3.9 mm, 3.7 mm, respectively in the group of animals kept on rubber floors versus 4.7 mm, 4.1 mm, 3.7 mm, respectively on solid concrete floors. The monthly horn wear of first, second and third or higher lactation cattle were 1.8 mm, 0.5 mm, 0.5 mm, respectively in the group of animals kept on rubber floors versus 2.5 mm, 0.7 mm, 0.6 mm, respectively on solid concrete floors. This results in a monthly net horn growth of first, second and third or higher lactation cattle of 2.5 mm, 3.5 mm, 3.2 mm, respectively in the group of animals kept on rubber floors versus 2.2 mm, 3.4 mm, 3.2 mm, respectively on solid concrete floors. Animals of the first lactation showed slightly smaller amounts of horn growth and horn wear compared to older animals. However, net horn growth did not differ between animals kept on rubber flooring versus solid concrete floors. The small amount of horn wear on solid concrete floors might be related to a lack of exercise of the animals due to the slippery solid concrete floors. The latter is also reflected in the net growth rates of claw horn of animals on concrete flooring being more than 3 mm/month. Net horn growth of the bulb of first, second and third or higher lactation cattle were 2.0 mm, 2.2 mm, 2.1 mm, respectively in the group of animals kept on rubber floors versus 1.5 mm, 1.6 mm, 2.1 mm, respectively on solid concrete floors. There were no differences observed with respect to the flooring types.
    The prevalence of lameness ranged from 14 % to 31 % (rubber floors) and 28 % to 42 % (solid concrete floors). They did not differ in the two groups at any date of observation. In addition, no differences were observed with respect to lactation numbers.
    The prevalence of laminitis-associated disorders were already high at the start of the observational period (1st, 2nd and 3rd or higher lactation: 71 %, 87 %, 87 % (rubber floors); 90 %, 99 %, 99 % (solid concrete floors). After 15 weeks laminitis-associated disorders were observed in nearly all claws. Defects of the white line (WLD), sole haemorrhages and double soles were the most prominent lesions observed in this context. There was no difference found with respect to the occurrence of new cases of defects of the white line and sole haemorrhages between the two groups, however the cure rate of the latter diseases was higher for animals of the third and higher lactation that were kept on rubber floors. In addition, the latter effect was also observed for defects of the white line and haemorrhages of animals of the first lactation kept on rubber flooring. Based on the latter findings the conclusion can be drawn that the type flooring does not lead to a reduction in cases of subclinical laminitis which might have been caused by fermentation disorders, but rubber flooring seems to enhance the process of recovery. The occurrence of new cases and the cure rates of double soles, slurry heel, digital dermatitis and interdigital dermatitis were not affected by the type of flooring. Animals of the first lactation that were kept on rubber floors had a smaller number of lesions related to dermatitis digitalis.
    The following conclusions can be drawn from the results of the study:
    Claw horn quality of rubber flooring dairy cattle does not differ from cattle kept on solid concrete floors. Net growth of dairy cattle kept on rubber floors is not higher as net growth of dairy cattle kept on slippery solid concrete floors. Prevalence of lameness does not differ between cattle kept on rubber or solid concrete floors. Keeping cattle on rubber floors does not lead to a better claw health if management based problems such moisture of alleys, bad stall comfort or feeding are not previously solved.