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Diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses of dogs and cats are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. AN patients referred to the Clinic for Small Animals, Free University Berlin, with symptoms of a nasal or paranasal sinus disease were included in the study and examined according to a standardized diagnostic scheme. In the course of diagnosis the clinical history was completed and a general as well as specialized clinical examination of the animal was concluded. Laboratory examinations such as haematology and serum chemistry, coagulation testing and, if necessary, a determination of antibodies against Aspergillus sp. and FIV or FeLV tests were performed. Radiographs of the nose and paranasal sinuses were done under general anaesthesia followed by a complete rhinoscopy, which means an examination of the caudal nasopharynx and a visualization of the nasal cavity through the external nares. Swabs and biopsy specimens were taken for microbiological, cytological and histopathological examinations. In some of the cases magnetic resonance imaging of the nose and paranasal sinuses was performed. The patients were treated according to the diagnosis and the therapeutic success was controlled over 1-2 years.Between December 1997 and December 1999 89 dogs and 56 cats with symptoms of nasal or nasopharyngeal disease were involved in the study. Twenty-three of the dogs had a primary bacterial rhinitis. Most often Staphylococcus intermedius (19) and E.coli (6) were isolated. A monoculture was isolated in 21 cases, 2 or 3 specimens respectively were identified once. Nine of the 23 dogs showed an increased radiodensity in the cranial (3) or caudal nasal region (5) or in the whole nasal cavity (1),. two of these dogs showed a destruction of the turbinates. All dogs were treated with an antibiotic based on the results of susceptibility tests. Fourteen of the dogs improved and were cured, the others showed recurrence of disease (3), were euthanised (2) or were not available for further examinations (4). Twenty-two dogs had an intranasal neoplasia: 8 adenocarcinomas, 5 squamous cell carcinomas, 3 lymphomas, 2 fibrosarcomas, 2 chondrosarcomas, 1 myxosarcoma and 1osteosarcoma. An increased radiodensity (20), destruction of the turbinates (13), lysis of the facial bones (4) and deviation of the nasal septum (1) were the most common radiographic findings. There was a different result of the cytological and histopathological diagnose in only 2 cases. Twenty dogs were euthanised immediately or within a period of 2 months. Two dogs with lymphosarcoma received chemotherapy for 3 weeks or 4 months, respectively, 2 patients were not available for controls. Fourteen animals had a lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis. One showed an increased radiodensity in the cranial, another one in the caudal nasal region and a third dog in the whole nasal cavity. The diagnosis was based on the exclusion of other diseases and the isolation of lymphoplasmacellular infiltrates in the cytological andlor histopathological examinations. Most of the dogs (9) improved after treatment with corticosteroids and there was no recurrence of disease, Three dogs showed only did symptoms; 1 dog showed no improvement and another was euthanised for other reasons. Twelve of the 89 dogs suffered from intranasal foreign bodies, with 11 showing an immediate improvement in their symptoms after extraction of the awn. An intranasal infection with Aspergillus was diagnosed in 11 cases based on a combination of rhinoscopy, radiography, serology, mycology,cytology and histopathology. One dog received no therapy, another was cured after treatment with fluoconazole per os. In addition to oral therapy sino-nasal flushing with enilconazole was performed in 5 cases. Two animals were cured, two showed recurrence of symptoms and 1 dog had to be euthanised during therapy. In the second part of the study period the invasive nasal flushing with enilconazole was replaced by noninvasive flushing with clotrimazole plus oral fluoconazole therapy. Three dogs were cured, 1 dog showed recurrence of symptoms and was treated for a second time. Symptoms of a nasal disease occured in 7 dogs due to other causes: leishmaniasis(2), bite wounds (2), von Willebrand"s disease (1), allergic rhinitis (1).Thirty-three of the 56 cats examined during the 2 year-study suffered from feline viral rhinotracheitis. An increased radiodensity (18) in the cranial nasal region (6), the whole nasal region (6), he caudal (3), the rostro-caudal region (3) and destruction of the turbinates (9) were seen in most of the radiographs. Grampositive bacteria were isolated in 20 cats and enterobacteria in 18. Two cats died during anesthesia because of cardiac disease. Twenty cats were treated with an antibiotic based on the results of susceptibility tests. Six cats were cured,7 showed recurrence of symptoms after the medication had been stopped, In 6 cats the course of the disease could not be followed. One cat had to he euthanised during therapy. The other 11 cats were treated with interferone and lysine in addition to the antibiotics. Three cats were cured, the other 2 showed recurrence of symptoms but in a milder form. Two cats did not improve, 3 cats showed recurrence of symptoms and in 1 cat the course of the disease could not be followed. Fifteen cats had nasal neoplasis: 5 lymphosarcomas, 3 squamous cell carcinomas, 3adenocarcinomas, 2 fibrosarcomas, 1 myxom . a and 1 undifierentiated sarcoma. Increasedradiodensity was documented in 11 of 12 cases: in the rostral nasal region (5), in the wholenasal cavity (4) and in either the caudal (1) or the rostro-caudal nasal region (1). In 9 catsthewradiological findings were unilateral. Cytological and histopathological diagnoses showed thesame results with 8 of 11 tumor patients. Thirteen cats were euthanised without any furthertherapy. Only 2 cats with lymphosarcoma received chemotherapy for 4 weeks or for 2months,respectively.A reotropharyngeal polyp was detected in 3 cats affecting the bulla tympanica. Two catswerecured after bulla osteotomy, retropharyngeal exstirpation of the polyp and treatment withantibiotics. Only 1 cat showed minimal serous nasal discharge after therapy.In 5 cats the symptoms were attributable to other diseases: a fistula after bulbus exstirpation,nasal aspergillosis, thrombocytopenia, oronasal fistula and a deformity of the palatum molle.