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Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most common form of myocardial diseases in dogs, and occurs particularly often in large and giant breeds.To investigate its occurrence in the PON, the medium-sized Polish Lowland Sheepdog, 78 animals were examined cardiologically at the Clinic for Small Animals of the Free University in Berlin, and their pedigree was analysed with regard to family relationships.The 78 dogs were subdivided into three groups:Group 1: Retrospective data analysis from 13 PON between three months and elevenyears of age, which had been treated in the clinic between 1991 and 1995. Group 2: Eleven pups between eight and twelve weeks old.Group 3: 54 PON, of ages between eight months and 13 years, which were examinedcardiologically solely for this study.Dilated cardiomyopathy was diagnosed in three dogs (23.1 %) from group I, in no dog from group 2, and in ine dogs (16.7 %) from group 3. Subclinical dilated cardiomyopathy was detected additionally in two dogs (18.2 %) from group 2, and in 23 PON (42.6 %) from group 3. This adds up to a total frequency of 15.4 % of the PON examined in this study suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy and further 32 displaying subclinical dilated cardiomyopathy. A genetic disposition to the occurrence of dilated cardiomyopathy seems likely as the analysis of their pedigrees showed a very close relationship between all PON.Of the dogs which displayed dilated cardiomyopathy (n=12), four (33.3 %) were male and eight (66.7 %) female. Of those showing subclinical dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 25), eleven (44.0 %) were male and 14 (56.0 %) female. This suggests a modestly increased disposition in bitches.The mean age of PON with dilated cardiomyopathy (x = 5.1 years) and subclinicaldilated cardiomyopathy (x = 5.4 years) lies above that of dogs with healthy hearts (x = 3.4 years).The most common ECG deviation were conduction disturbances (atrioventricular block I.° and II. °). 41.7 % of dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy displayed such conduction disorders, and 16.0 % of those with subclinical dilated cardiomyopathy. Apart from congestive cardiomyopathy. 14 PON (17.9 %) were diagnosed with atrioventricular valve fibrosis, five PON (6.4 %) with patent Ductus arteriosus, hreepups (3.8 %) with moderator bands in the left ventricle, two dogs (2.6 %) with insufficiency of the pulmonary valve, and one dog with tricuspid valve dysplasia.