Fachbereich Veterinärmedizin



    Medical Assessment of the (metabolic) acid-base Status in an ill Horse with Fluid Therapy:
    the diagnostic potential of the Stewart Variables (2009)

    Siegling-Vlitakis, C
    Schmohl, M
    Grabner, A
    Hartmann, H.
    8th EVECCS Congress 2009
    Berlin, 12. – 14.06.2009
    Proceedings: 8th EVECCS Congress 2009
    — S. 236
    Institut für Veterinär-Physiologie

    Oertzenweg 19 b
    14163 Berlin
    Tel.+49 30 838 62600 Fax.+49 30 838-62610

    Abstract / Zusammenfassung

    History and signalment:
    This patient was a 8-year-old mare (~700 kg) with colon obstruction exhibiting signs of severe abdominal pain nonresponsive to analgesic therapy (sweating, restlessness, distension of the abdomen, bright red gums, capillary refilling time 4 s, pulse 60bpm, hematocrit 0.44 l/l, total protein: 66 g/l).

    Diagnostic work:
    Before and after the infusion venous blood was taken. The acid-base parameters included electrolytes and protein were determined within 30 min and the Stewart-variables (Strong ion difference=SID and Acid total=Atot) were calculated (Tab.1).

    Tab.1: Equations for calculation of the Stewart-variables
    1 Serum-[SID4] mmol/l = ([Na] + [K]) - ([Cl] + [Lactate]) mmol/l
    2 Serum-[Atot] mmol/l = (0.225 x [Albumin] g/l + 0.14 x [Globulin] g/l) + 1.828 x [Phosphate] mmol/l

    Therapy: focussed on infusion
    Before surgery the mare was degassed and received 5 L isotonic sodium-chloride solution ([SID4]=0mmol/l, [Atot]=0mmol/l) and 1 L sodium-bicarbonate solution (4.2%, [SID4]=500mmol/l, [Atot]=0mmol/l) within 45 min for stabilization. By surgery the cause of this colic was found (Retroflexio coli) and the colon was replaced.

    Discussion about the acid-base status:
    Before fluid therapy the patient showed a metabolic acidosis caused by hyperlactemia and increased unmeasured organic ions .Therefore after infusion the hyperlactemic acidosis was decreased (increased [SID4] and decreased lactate compared to before), but a mild alkalosis was induced that results in a corrected blood pH. This fact is hidden by observation with the traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch model.
    In order to determine the cause of metabolic acidosis and alkalosis (aetiopathogenesis) the Stewart parameters [SID] and [Atot] are necessary which show the relationship between electrolytes, proteins and acid-base status. Therefore the SID- and Atot concentrations of the plama as well as of infusion solutions must be considered to administer an effective fluid therapy.