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Three experiments were conducted to determine the effect of endogenous progesterone (P4) on body temperature comparing lactating, pregnant with lactating, nonpregnant cows, and to study the effect of exogenous P4 administered via a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert on body temperature in lactating dairy cows. Body temperature was measured vaginally and rectally using temperature loggers and a digital thermometer, respectively. In experiment 1, 10 cyclic lactating cows (3 primiparous, 7 multiparous) and 10 lactating, pregnant cows (3 primiparous, 7 multiparous) were included. Vaginal temperatures and serum P4 concentrations were greater in pregnant cows (vaginal: 0.3±0.01°C; P4: 5.5±0.4 ng/mL) compared with nonpregnant cows. In experiment 2, estrous cycles of 14 postpartum healthy, cyclic, lactating cows (10 primiparous, 4 multiparous) were synchronized, and cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 treatments (CIDR-P4 or CIDR-blank). A temperature logger was inserted 1 d after ovulation using a P4-free CIDR (CIDR-blank) and a CIDR containing 1.38g of P4 (CIDR-P4) in the control (n=7) and the P4-treated group (n=7), respectively. On d 3 after P4 treatment, vaginal temperature was 0.3±0.03°C greater compared with that on d 1 and d 5. In experiment 3, 9 cyclic multiparous lactating cows were enrolled 1±1 d after confirmed ovulation and a temperature logger inserted. Two days later, a CIDR-P4 was inserted on top of the CIDR-blank. On d 5±1 and d 7±1, respectively, the CIDR-P4 and CIDR-blank with the temperature logger were removed. During the CIDR-P4 treatment (48h), vaginal temperature was 0.2±0.05°C and 0.1±0.05°C greater than during the pre- and post-treatment periods (48h), respectively. Serum P4 concentration peaked during CIDR-P4 treatment (2.2±0.8 ng/mL) and was greater than during the pre-treatment period (0.2±0.2 ng/mL) for 48h. An increase in vaginal temperature could be due to endogenous and exogenous P4. However, a correlation between serum P4 concentrations and body temperature did not exist. Further investigations are warranted to better understand the pathways of the thermogenic effect of P4 on body temperature.