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Introduction: Various cytokines mediate the inflammatory reaction of the body during surgical interventions. Following invasive abdominal surgery the cytokines Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) are the first that are released from the traumatized tissues. Subsequently, these cytokines stimulate the production of further cytokines such as IL-6, which leads to the destruction of microorganisms and by this means diminishes surgery-induced stress. Alterations in the cytokine pattern after surgery can generally point on possibly arising post-surgical complications. In order to gain further insights into these mechanisms, the Heat Shock proteins (Hsp) are useful indicators for cellular stress, since they maintain the cellular homeostasis, protect the cells from different stress stimuli and exert influence on the immune system. Various stimuli, among these antibiotics and cytokines, lead to an increase in the inducible Heat Shock protein expression. In case of additional stress, patients who underwent invasive surgery are not able to elicit an adequate Hsp70-response, resulting in a disturbed immune defense and increased infection rate. The present study investigates the cytokine expression and cellular stress response following laparoscopic and laparotomic surgery on cows with abomasal displacement.
Methods: 14 cows admitted to the clinic for cattle with abomasal displacement were included in this study. Surgery was carried out either by omentopexy (Hannover method; n=9) or laparoscopy (Janowitz method; n=5). Samples of venous blood were drawn from each cow, immediately before and after surgery as well as 2, 4, 6, 24 and 48 hours later, respectively. Total RNA then was isolated and transcribed into cDNA. Different expressions of Hsp70 and selected cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α) were calculated against house-keeping genes using Real Time-PCR.
Conclusion: Comparison between laparoscopic and laparotomic techniques showed significant differences in cytokine and Hsp gene-expression, indicating increased cell stress after laparotomy. In addition, the clinical condition of the animals was reflected in the cytokine profiles.