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The concentration and species composition of airborne molds were studied in different cattle houses, pig houses, poultry house and sheep barn.In pilot experiments different aerosol samplers [KROTOW slit-sampler, ANDERSEN cascadeimpactor, REUTER centrifugal air sampler (RCS, firm Biotest GmbH), all-glassimpinger (AGI30)] and culture media (SABOURAUD-Glucose-nutrient agar, Bierwürze-Pepton-nutrient agar, Bengalrot-Chloramphenicol-nutrient agar, Dichloran-Glycerin-nutrient agar) were tested for their ability to collect airborne molds in animal houses. Best results were achieved with the ANDERSEN sampler and the Dichloran-Glycerin-agar the. Therefore, the ANDERSEN sampler and the Dichloran-Glycerin-agar were used for all further investigations.On average the total amount of airborne molds ranged from 188 to 7460 CFU/m3 in cattle and from 228 to 556 CF1J/m3 in pig stables. In the hen laying battery 725 CM/m3 were found whereas 64080 CFU/m3 were isolated in the sheep house. The genus Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium and Scopulariopsis were isolated very frequent followed by the genus Alternaria and Wallemia.By means of ANDERSEN sampler the aerodynamic sizes of the isolated molds were investigated. It was found that, most of airborne Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Scopulariopsis and Wallemia can penetrate into the lungs, and that a considerable part of Aspergillus, Penicillium and Wallemia can even penetrate into the alveoli.Based on the analysis of potential sources for airborne molds it is suggested that Cladosporium and partly Penicillium were transported into the stable by outside air. Hay was identified as an important source for airborne Wallemia, Aspergillus and Scopulariopsis. Further, straw was an important source of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Scopulariopsis and Wallemia. Aspergillus and Scopulariopsis were also found in considerable amounts in feces.For studies dealing with spreading of airborne molds from animal stables into the environment, the Aspergillus-glaucus-group (Eurotium spp.) could be used as an indicator, because the Aspergillus-glaucus-group appears very frequently and at a high concentration in the air of animal houses. It was also found that PCR-fingerprinting could be used for differentiation of molds belonging to the Aspergillus-glaucus-group.