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Slow-release deslorelin implants provide an opportunity for effective contraception in male dogs. Some authors describe deslorelin as safe and efficacious for the use in female domestic dogs. It is well known that estrus can be induced if the implant is administered when plasma progesterone concentrations are lower than 5 ng/ml. A seven years old female Bernese mountain dog was presented to our clinic for suppression of reproductive function. One 4.7 mg deslorelin implant was injected sc. Three months later, the dog was re-examined because of prolonged estrus. Ultrasound showed multiple thin-walled cysts on both ovaries. Several blood samples were taken and two treatments with 360 IU and 420 IU human choriongonadotropine (hCG) were conducted, respectively. Estradiol concentrations and vaginal smears corresponded with estrus whereas FSH and LH did not. The first treatment with hCG seemed to have induced a partial or complete degeneration or luteinization of the cysts but estradiol levels raised again within a few weeks. After the second treatment the bitch developed a pyometra. After successful conservative treatment of the inflammation with antibiotics and aglepristone the dog was submitted to ovariohysterectomy. This case demonstrates that the use of deslorelin implants in bitches may not be completely free of possible negative side effects and interactions with other hormones. The possible association between the deslorelin application and the occurrence of follicular cysts warrants further research.