Fachbereich Veterinärmedizin



    Gynäkologische und geburtshilfliche Erkrankungen der Katze :Auswertung von Krankengeschichten aus der Tierklinik für Geburtshilfe und Fortpflanzungsstörungen der Humboldt-Universität bzw. Tierklinik für Fortpflanzung d FU- Berlin in den Jahren 1974 bis 97 (2001)

    Sohst, Silke
    Berlin, 2001 — 74, [57] Seiten
    Tierklinik für Fortpflanzung

    Königsweg 65
    Haus 27
    14163 Berlin
    +49 30 838 62618

    Abstract / Zusammenfassung

    In the present study clinical records of female cats treated obstetrically and gynaecologically in the period between 01 January 1974 and 31 March 1997 at the former Animal Hospital for Obstetrics and Reproductive Disorders of Humboldt-Universität as well as the Reproduction Clinics of the Freie Universität Veterinary Medical Faculty are analysed and discussed. Out of 3620 animals treated in the above mentioned period the data on 2928 female cats are taken into consideration for analysis, leaving 475 tomcats, 46 kittens and 171 queens without gynaecological or obstetrical disorders unconsidered. Clinical treatment was carried out because of the following indications: 1. Neutering 2. Dystocia 3. Endometritis-Pyometra-Comple 4. Abortio 5. Other Gynaecological or Obstetrical Disorders. 1. Neutering 2015 female cats were presented for neutering at the Animal Hospital. The surgery performed along the linea alba in cats fixed on a lying or sloping operation table has a more than 99 per cent chance of healing. During surgery pregnancy was diagnosed in almost a quarter of all patients. This is due to the high number of feral cats. The following secondary results were diagnosed on the occasion of neutering: - pathological changes in the uterus - hernia umbilicali - organic disorders (liver; heart diseases) leading to incidents during anaest hesia - pathological abdominal enlargement - aplasia of one uterine horn - ovarian remnant syndrome - hermaphroditism - prolapsus uteri/ prolap - uterine rupture Neutering is generally carried out by ovariectomy or partial ovariohysterectomy. Only in cases of pathologically changed uterus or pregnancy in progress is the complete uterus removed. Wound healing problems in the postoperative phase occurred in more than 6 per cent of the queens, complete suture dehiscence in almost 40 per cent, which can mainly be related to the suture material and technique. Suturing the operation wound in layers is recommended. To avoid the removal of stitches, especially in feral cats, an intracutane suture should be made. The operation risk is considered to be low. The anaesthetic technique of injecting Ketamin and Propionylpromazin has not led to any incident. Postmortem findings in cats which died during or shortly after surgery revealed previous disorders of the parenchyma. 2. Dystocia In the period studied 616 cats were brought to the hospital because of dystocia. The seasonal variation in the number of queens presented can he related to their biological rhythm of reproduction. Over 60 per cent were Pedigree cats, with the percentage of Persians being especially high.The average age was almost three years, most queens presented were aged one to two years.More than 60 per cent of the cats had been pregnant efore; in one third of the cases labour went without complications. Most cases of dystocia were related to fetal conditions, among these fetal malposition accounted for about 70 per cent. Of the maternal conditions a too narrow pelvic canal was the main reason for dystocia. With rising age and a rising number of pregnancies a tendency toward increasing fetal conditions can be established. As a rule the cats had been in labour for a long period. The time interval between the first signs of beginning labour and the presentation at the hospital was 18 hours on average, which influenced the therapy and the success of treatment. The longer the labour lasted, the larger were the losses of cats and the smaller were the chances of survival for the kittens. If labour does not exceed 18 hours, 70 per cent of the kittens survive, if it lasts up to 24 hours, t e percentage is 50. Therapy depends on the symptoms. The primary aim is to save the life of he mother and if possible that of the kittens as well. Medical treatment is relatively rarely successful in cats. Only a third of the cases of this study could be resolved by medical/ manual treatment alone. In cases of a clear cause of dystocia, e.g. uterine inertia and a too narrow soft pelvis, medical treatment can be successful if no other disorders like e.g. fetal malposition are diagnosed and labour has not been too long. In most cases a caesarean section had to be performed immediately, indicated by a too narrow birth canal, fetal malposition, single large fetus and related prolonged gestation as well as fetal oversize and fetal death. Caesarean sections had to be performed on four fifth of the cats in this study as the only therapy possible. The decision to perform a conservative or radical caesarean section depends on the symptoms and the further usage of the cat for breeding. Cats in which a caesarean section is necessary can give birth without complications in later pregnancies, depending on the cause of dystocia. Complications in subsequent birth have to be considered in the case of a too narrow bony pelvis of the queen. Further breeding should therefore be refrained from. Wound healing problems occurred as strong secretion of the wound, superficial dehiscence and complete suture dehiscence, as a consequence of which about 10 per cent of the queen died or had to be put down. The general condition of 0.8 per cent of the cats presented was so bad that they had to be bony down. 3 per cent of the cats died during the treatment because of heavy damage to the greatparenchyma. in more than 60 per cent of these cats labour had exceeded 24 hours. Almost 94 per cent of the cases of dystocia could be treated successfully, 971 kittens survived. 3. Endometritis-Pyometra-Complex In 21 of the 211 cases presented, the uterine disorder was discovered by chance during neutering. Vaginal discharge and bad general condition were the main reasons for taking the animals to the hospital, abdominal enlargement one of the main symptoms. The disorder developed in over 80 per cent of the cats 8 weeks after they had been on heat. Abdominal palpation, X-ray and ultrasonic examination as well as occasional blood analyses were carried out to verify the diagnosis. In over 60 per cent of the cases corpora lutea were found in the ovaries, in 30 per cent cystic follicles occured. Animals exhibiting permanent heat did always have cystic follicles, but never corpora lutea. In 96 per cent of the cases, therapy consisted of the surgical removal of the pathologically changed uterus; medical treatment was tried occasionally, but was only successful in 60 per cent. As a result, almost 89 per cent of the cats could be healed, more than 11 per cent of the animals died or had to be put down. In most cases the disorder had existed for a long time, thus heavy damage to the great parenchyma was the eason for the failure of the treatment. 4. Abortion Abortion was diagnosed in 53 female cats. In most cases, the cats were presented to the hospital because of vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding or bad general condition. The abortion remained unnoticed by most of the owners. The queens were predominantly in the second or final trimester of pregnancy. Fetuses died before the 30th day of pregnancy seem to be resorbed or mummified. It is important to bear in mind that a mummified fetus can be the cause of dystocia in further births. The therapy depends on the initial diagnosis, on living or dead kittens in the birth canal, on pathological changes of the uterus, on the stage of pregnancy and on whether the cat should be kept for further breeding. On third of the animals examined in this study were successfully treated medically, in the ermaining patients surgery was necessary. More than 92 per cent were treated successfully. Uterine bleedings, heavy liver disorders and peritonitis (1 case) led to loss of mother animals. 5. Other Gynaecological or Obstetrical Disorders During the years, 40 cats have been presented because of other diseases like puerperal disorders, tumourous changes of the genital tract or mammary gland, and functional disorders of the mamma. In 14 animals pregnancy is examined. Secondary symptons and complications occur in the form of hernia umbilicalis, deformities of the genital tract, uterine prolapse, uterine rupture and perforations.