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The aim of this paper is to present the development of the special field Physiology and Pathology Of Reproduction ("Fachgebiet Physiologie und Pathologie der Fortpflanzung") at its original site in the geographical heart of Berlin from the foundation of the School of Veterinary Medicine ("Tierarzneischule") to the reestablishment of the Veterinary Faculty of the Humboldt-University ("Veterinärmedizinische Fakultät der Humboldt-Universität") in 1989/1990. The loss of cattle in Europe in the 18th century due to cattle-plagues, especially the uncontrollable rinderpest, had devastating effects. As Physicians at the time resented involvement with the control of animal diseases, Dr. Christian Andreas Cothenius, Dean of the "Collegium Sanitatis", developed plans in 1767 to set up a Veterinary School ("Tierarzneischule"), as requested by Friedrich II. However, due to existing financial constraints, this plan could not be followed through (REUTNER, 1940). On the Is of July 1790 under the government of Friedrich Wilhelm II The Royal Veterinary School ("Königliche Thier-Artzney-Schule"), planned by Earl Karl Heinrich August von Lindenau, was finally inaugurated in what is today´s center of Berlin ("Berlin- Mitte") (SCHUTZ, 1890). Under the direction of the "Obennarstallamt" (1790 - 1817), the scholars, called-"Fahnenschmiede", were educated for military purposes. At that time, Veterinary obstetrics was lectured in the form of excursions as it had not yet been established as a special field of Veterinary Medicine (FROHNER, 1946).In 1833, Werner Spinola was appointed Director of the Hospital. For Small Animals ("Spital für kleine Haustiere"), and in 1835 an Outpatient Department. For Evented Ungulates ("Ambulatorische Klinik für Klauentiere") was founded, firstly directed by Johann Georg Naumann, then by Werner Theodor Johann Spinola, who achieved great scientific progress (SCHUTZ, 1890). From 1836, the Veterinary School ("Tierarzneischule") was directed by the Administrative Body.
For matters of Hospitals and the Veterinary School ("Kuratorium für Krankenhaus- und Tierarzneischulangelegenheiten"), which requested improvements regarding the scholar´s education. After the "Kuratorium´s" dissolution, administration was taken over by the Ministry of Teaching and Medical Matters ("Ministerium der geistlichen, Unterrichts- und Medizinalangelegenheiten") when in 1849 Ernst Friedrich GurIt became director of the Veterinary School ("Tierarzneischule") (SCHÜTZ, 1890). In 1849, when Andreas Christian Gerlach acted as Director of the Outpatient Department ("Ambulatorische Klinik") it established an impressive reputation; Gerlach´s successor, Carl Heinrich Hertwig, continued to uphold this success (SCHÜTZ, 1890). At the end of the 19th century (due to the introduction of the agricultural industrialization) cattle-plague became a major threat again. This resulted in the "Tierarzneischule´s" attachment to the Ministry Of Agriculture ("Ministerium für Landwirtschaftliche Angelegenheiten") in 1872 (SCHUTZ, 1890).
From 1873, the Outpatient Department ("Ambulatorische Klinik") was auspiciously directed by Wilhelm Dieckerhoff, and from 1878 towards by Albert Ea. directed by Gerlach, the "Tierarzneischule´s" scientific level rose considerably.
This was supported by famous lecturers, such as Wilhelm Dieckerhoff, Johannes Schutz, Heinrich Möller, Immanuel Munk, and from 1886 by Eugen Fröhner and Reinhold Schmaltz.
In 1887 the Veterinary School ("Tierarzneischule") gained the right and honor to call its institution University of Veterinary Studies ("Tierärztliche Hochschule"). The Veterinary Obstetric Hospital continued to prosper under Friedrich Schöttler and also later under Director Johannes Ließ (from 1935 onwards). In 1937, the Berlin University of Veterinary Studies ("Tierärztliche Hochschule zu Berlin") was renamed The Veterinary Faculty of the Friedrich-Wilhelm-University ("Veterinärmedizinische Fakultät der Friedrich-Wilhelm-Universität"). The effects of World War II (1939 - 1945) caused considerable personal loss and damage to the above mentioned buildings and institutions. By the end of the war, reconstruction of the Veterinary Faculty ("Veterinärmedizinische Fakultät")
was prioritized and widely supported, and consequently, in the summer of 1949, the Outpatient Department was re-opened under the temporary direction of Kurt Neumann-Kleinpaul. In September 1948, Harry Tillmann became head of the Veterinary Obstetric Hospital ("Geburtshilfliche Klinik"); during the time of his administration the obligatory examination of cattle and wards for artificial insemination were established in the newly founded German Democratic. Republic (GDR). In 1948 the university"s name was changed to Berlin Humboldt-University as a tribute to the brothers Wilhelm and Alexander von Humboldt. In April 1951, authorities in West-Berlin agreed to establish a Veterinary Faculty affiliated to the Medical Faculty of the Free University of Berlin ("Freie Universität Berlin") which had been founded in 1948. This was deemed necessary, as the Faculty in Berlin-East had been infiltrated by members of the communist party. This, for obvious reasons, was perceived as a threat to the rights of free speech and teaching. Several professors, among them Harry Tillmann and Kurt Neumann-Kleinpaul, and many students left the Faculty in Berlin-East to find a politically independent teaching institution. In 1951, Otto Hofferber became Harry Tillmann"s successor and further expanded the Veterinary Hospital of Obstetrics, Bovine Diseases and Outpatient Department ("Klinik für Geburtshilfe, Rinderkrankheiten und Außenklinik").
He was responsible for the scientific pro-ram, investigation and advancement at that time. Under Franz Schaetz (1957 - 1974), veterinary tasks and procedures changed due to the politically induced industrialization of social agriculture. This affected five stock care, herd diagnosis and issues of management. Student training therefore had to be adapted accordingly and topics like artificial insemination, reproductive disorders, udder disease, neonatology and ruraleconomy, became part of student teaching. F. Schaetz made his mark at the time due to his teaching skills and efficient manner in all clinical investigations. Schaetz supervised more than 190 scientific projects and introduced the change from species-orientated hospitals to the system of subject-orientated clinics ("Disziplinkliniken") in 1958, with the aim to improve the education of students. In 1968, due to the resolution of the German Socialist Party ("Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED"), the third reform of the university system was implemented in an undemocratic fashion and the Chairs of both the Veterinary Faculty and the Agricultural Faculty "(Veterinärmedizinische und Landwirtschaftliche Fakultät") were united to the Section of Animal Production and Veterinary Medicine ("Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinärmedizin, STPV"), to master the tasks of industrial animal-production. To fulfill their obligations to their profession, veterinarians required specialist knowledge. Therefore postgraduate studies for further specialization were introduced in 1970. In 1974 Walter Busch took over the administration of the Veterinary Obstetric Hospital. He encouraged scientific investigation, especially of estrus- synchronization, treatment of infertility, pharmacological tests, induction of poly-ovulation, twin-pregnancies, embryological transfer, and others. In 1986 W. Busch marshalled the re-opening of the Outpatient Department, which had been closed after the third reform of the university system. Shortly after the fall of the Berlin wall, the Ion. awaited separation of veterinary medicine from the field of animal production could at last be followed through. Th. Hiepe, who with others, had long called for the above mentioned separation, sub
sequently became first Dean and brought back the status of Faculty.