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Trypanocidal drugs are the most commonly purchased and used livestock input by resource-poor farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. In West Africa, these drugs are critical in protecting the 17 million head of cattle from trypanosomosis. The effective use of trypanocidal drugs by smallholder farmers is threatened by the development of widespread resistance. This is a particular concern for smallholder crop-livestock farmers in the cotton-zone of West Africa. A recent BMZ-funded project has confirmed significant resistance to trypanocidal drugs in the province of Kénédougou of Mali and Burkina Faso. In villages with high trypanosomosis risk, the occurrence of trypanocidal resistance was common. Trypanocides were found being widely used irrespective of trypanosomosis risk. They were purchased from a wide variety of suppliers without careful attention to quality and given without regard to standard doses and procedures. Preliminary analysis of animal health markets highlighted a great variation in prices of inputs between Mali and Burkina Faso due to differences in regulations and market information. Given the project findings, it was concluded, that: (1) the regional dimension of trypanocidal drug resistance, particularly on policy aspects and joint research needs must be taken into account; and (2) research at local level should focus on how to better deliver and ensure adoption of integrated control strategies in which drug use can be targeted and reduced.