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The increasing demand for meat and dairy products ? notably in the vicinity of expanding urban centres in many African countries ? requires the foreseeable intensification of livestock production systems. A concomitant and inevitable increase of vector-borne diseases needs to be countered by integrated pest management (IPM) practices. Arguably, tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis is one of the most devastating diseases, affecting human and livestock health, agricultural production and rural development (1).Trypanocidal drugs still constitute the mainstay and are the most commonly purchased and used livestock input by resource-poor farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. The increasing occurrence of wide-spread resistance against trypanocidal drugs is warranting new approaches, particularly targeting vector control methods. There are now efforts to eradicate tsetse and the diseases on a Pan-African scale (2). So far, a lack of sustainability has led to the reappearance of tsetse once the external funding had come to an end. Habitat modification through an encroachment of human activities has led to the disappearance of tsetse from many areas (?autonomous control?) although some tsetse species have a capacity for adapting to peri-domestic sites. In the absence of tsetse other vectors are becoming increasingly relevant. Flies from the sub-family Muscinae are known to transmit more than 100 pathogens of potential risk for human and animal health. The uncontrolled use of insecticides has led to an increase in insecticidal resistance. The recent design of a new vector control method is offering a promising alternative to the wide-spread use of trypanocides and insecticides. Insecticide-treated mosquito fences were found to effectively control tsetse and nuisance flies when circumventing pens or other enclosures for livestock at a height of 1 ? 1.50m. This new vector control approach is considered to offer considerable advantages insofar that it has not only a private but also public goods character, since spin-offs can be expected that are beneficial due to a control of vectors, which might otherwise inflict damages to neighbouring farmers or livestock.