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A total of 207 thoracic radiographs obtained from 128 foals were evaluated to assess the impact of pulmonary radiographic pattern, distribution, and severity of pulmonary changes on short-term survival of neonatal foals. The association between selected clinical variables and the radiographic manifestation of neonatal respiratory disease was also investigated. The evaluation of interstitial and alveolar-interstitial radiographic patterns within the caudodorsal, caudoventral, and cranioventral lung regions proved to be highly reliable between viewers in the study. A diagnosis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome was related to increased pulmonary infiltrates within the caudodorsal lung region. Dyspneic foals had more extensive pulmonary infiltrates within the cranioventral lung, advanced respiratory disease, and lower survival rates. A fibrinogen concentration >400 mg/dL was associated with increased cranioventral radiographic abnormalities. In addition, tachypnea most consistently related to diffuse (caudodorsal, caudoventral, and cranioventral) pulmonary changes. Neutropenia, milk reflux from the nares, upper airway pathology, abnormal respiratory sounds, failure of transfer of passive immunity (IgG concentration <400 mg/dL), immaturity, or fever, however, were not related to radiographic pattern, distribution, or severity of radiographic changes. Sixty-five percent of foals with radiographic pulmonary disease were discharged alive from our referral hospital. Concurrent caudodorsal and caudoventral radiographic disease was most frequently observed in this foal population. Increased caudodorsal radiographic scores retained statistical significance as a prognostic indicator for nonsurvival in a multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis.