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Conception rates after Ovsynch have been higher in primiparous than in multiparous cows. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this difference might be due to differences in ovulation rate or follicular size. The experiment was conducted with 136 Holstein Frisian cows from a commercial herd in Brandenburg, Germany. All cows were synchronized using Buserelin (GnRH analogue) at day -10, Tiaprost (PGF2alpha analogue) at day -3 and again GnRH at day -1. Timed artificial insemination (TAI) was carried out 16-20 h after the second dose of GnRH on day 0. Milk samples for analysis of milk progesterone were obtained on days -17, -10, -3 and at TAI. Progesterone concentrations were used to determine the stage of oestrus cycle at the start of the synchronization protocol and to investigate the presence of functional luteal tissue before treatment with PGF2alpha and TAI. All animals were examined by ultrasound at the second treatment with GnRH, at AI, 8 and 24 h after AI. Overall synchronization rate (proportion of cows with an ovulation within 40 h after GnRH) was 86.8% in primiparous and 88.2% in multiparous cows, respectively. Ovulation occurred earlier in primparous than in multiparous cows (p < 0.05) and ovulatory follicles were smaller. Conception rates were numerically higher in primiparous cows but the difference was not significant. Cows that displayed signs of oestrus on day -1 and received an additional AI on this day were more likely to conceive than cows that only received TAI 16 to 20 h after GnRH2. It is concluded that ovulation occurs earlier in primiparous than in multiparous cows after Ovsynch. However, a significant relationship between these differences and the probability of conception could not be established.