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In four trials with 1600 turkey in the age of 1 to 16 weeks effects of different E.faecium strains (NCIMB 10415, DSM 10663/NCIMB 10425) and spores (B. licheniformis DSM 5749 + B subtilis DSM 5750) on performance and animal losses were studied under different diet and housing conditions. Birds fed with probiotics had in average a 1.5 % higher body weight gain than the controls. The feed conversion was improved by 2.0 %. Sex and age showed pronounced, diet and housing low modulation g effects. However the differences were not significant. E. faecium increased the counts of Enterococci, the metalolic activity of thermophilic Lactobacilli and the intestinal lactate concentration in the jejunum and ileum of turkey chickens during the first 4 weeks of life. These results are confirming the discussed modes of action pointing to modifications of the gastrointestinal flora in the sense of a stabilisation of the homeostasis. From this point of knowledge probiotics can be a safety factor in turkey nutrition.