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Probiotics (viable micro-organisms) are feed additives with a potential to improve farm animal performance (rarely significant) and to reduce incidence to diarrhoea. Probiotic micro-organism can be found within in a short period in all segments of the intestinal tract of piglets (shown for Enterococcus faecium and Bacillus cereus strains). Probiotics modify the microbiota in the intestinal tract. Further understanding of the consequences requires application of advanced techniques. Evidently structural characteristics and transport kinetics of the intestinal mucosa and the immune status are also involved in the animals response to probiotics. Within a production system without antibiotic growth promoters, probiotics may act as a safety factor but due to the modes of action they can not replace antibiotics solely.