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The serine protease, tissue kininogenase (kallikrein), belongs to a unique family of enzymes that cleaves the decapeptide, kallidin, from the endogenous substrate kininogen. By analysis of genealogy patterns, rat KLK gene family members have been detected in ovarian luteinizing granulosa cells of both gonadotrophin-treated and nontreated control rats. Preliminary experiments suggest that when granulosa and endothelial cells are co-cultured, granulosa cells participate in the formation of vascular capillary tubes. This inherent capacity of granulosa cells to behave and respond like endothelial cells may be of importance in the aetiology of ovarian angiogenesis, which drives new blood vessel formation in the ovary. Recently, we demonstrated that tissue kininogenase showed intense immunolabelling in angiogenic endothelial cells isolated from bovine mature and regressing corpora lutea. Therefore, the question to answer was whether granulosa cells possess the same capacity to express the kallikrein-kinin cascade as do microvascular endothelial cells. As a first step, experiments were designed to determine the expression and visualization of tissue kininogenase (both active and pro-forms) as well as kininogen and kinin receptors in granulosa cells of different developmental stage and segments of the ovarian follicle by immunoperoxidase, fluorescent microscopy (confocal) and in situ hybridization.