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The digestive tract plays a central role in nutrient acquisition and harbors a vast and intricate community of bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites, collectively known as the microbiota. In recent years, there has been increasing recognition of the complex and highly contextual involvement of this microbiota in the induction and education of host innate and adaptive immune responses under homeostasis, during infection and inflammation. The gut passage and colonization by unicellular and multicellular parasite species present an immense challenge to the host immune system and to the microbial communities that provide vital support for its proper functioning. In mammals, parasitic nematodes induce distinct shifts in the intestinal microbial composition. Vice versa, the commensal microbiota has been shown to serve as a molecular adjuvant and immunomodulator during intestinal parasite infections. Moreover, similar interactions occur within insect vectors of deadly human pathogens. The gut microbiota has emerged as a crucial factor affecting vector competence in Anopheles mosquitoes, where it modulates outcomes of infections with malaria parasites. In this review, we discuss currently known involvements of the host microbiota in the instruction, support or suppression of host immune responses to gastrointestinal nematodes and protozoan parasites in mice, as well as in the malaria mosquito vector. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying microbiota-dependent modulation of host and vector immunity against parasites in mammals and mosquitoes is key to a better understanding of the host-parasite relationships and the identification of more efficient approaches for intervention and treatment of parasite infections of both clinical and veterinary importance.