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Due to increasing resistance development, antibiotic use in veterinary medicine is subject to public attention. Antibiotics should only be used, if bacterial infection has been diagnosed or can be reasonably assumed. The importance of chosing an adequate drug, correct dosage and duration of treatment needs to be emphasized to avoid the development of antibiotic resistance. Microbiologic culture and antibiogram are essential to avoid ineffective therapy and treatment of bacteria irrelevant for the clinical signs. Nevertheless, antibiotic dosages are often inadequate or inappropriate antibiotics are prescribed. Regarding perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis, route of application, timing of first application and intra-operative redosing need to be considered. Not only in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, but also in Acetinobacter and Salmonella spp. antibiotic resistance was found in horses. A reversal of this trend is not to be expected any time soon, therefore all our efforts should focus on improving antibiotic useuse as the aforementioned can also infect humans.