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The study was conducted to estimate the proportion of reproductive disorders and to determine factors affecting reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows under four different production systems in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The principal postpartum reproductive disorders were retained fetal membranes (14.7%) and uterine infection (15.5%). Anoestrus was the major postpartum reproductive problem in the mixed crop-livestock production system (38.6%) and was significantly associated with this production system. Apart from anoestrus, the occurrence of reproductive disorders was not significantly associated with a production system. Most of the reproductive disorders occurred as a complex rather than as a single abnormality. Two or more abnormal conditions were seen in 11.4% of the cases. Each reproductive trait measured was affected adversely by reproductive disorders. Cows with reproductive disorders in each production system, lactation group and suckling and non-suckling group had longer intervals from calving to first service and to conception (p < 0.001) and required more services per conception (p < 0.001). Pregnancy rate and conception to first service were 84.7% and 51.7%, respectively, for cows without reproductive health problems; and 64.2%, and 15.1%, respectively, for cows with reproductive disorders (p < 0.001). Overall, intervals from calving to first service were shorter (p < 0.05) than in younger cows. Intervals from calving to first service and to conception were longer in suckling than in non-suckling cows (p > 0.05). Cows with a good body condition score (> 3.5) at calving had shorter calving to first service and conception intervals than cows in poor condition (p < 0.001). The results showed that reproductive abnormalities, coupled with poor body condition, are important factors that contributed to reproductive inefficiency. An appropriate reproductive health management, a reliable artificial insemination service and supplementary feeding could be the management options to reduce or alleviate some of the problems.