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Human and animal health is globally affected by a variety of parasitic helminths. The impact of co-infections and development of anthelmintic resistance requires improved diagnostic tools, especially for parasitic nematodes e.g., to identify resistant species or attribute pathological effects to individual species or particular species combinations. In horses, co-infection with cyathostomins is rather a rule than an exception with typically 5 to 15 species (out of more than 40 described) per individual host. In cyathostomins, reliable morphological species differentiation is currently limited to adults and requires highly specialized expertize while precise morphological identification of eggs and early stage larvae is impossible. The situation is further complicated by a questionable validity of some cyathostomins while others might actually represent cryptic species complexes. Several molecular methods using different target sequences were established to overcome these limitations. For adult worms, PCR followed by sequencing of mitochondrial genes or external or internal ribosomal RNA spacers is suitable to genetically confirm morphological identifications. The most commonly used method to differentiate eggs or larvae is the reverse-line-blot hybridization assay. However, both methods suffer from the fact that target sequences are not available for many species or even that GenBank® entries are unreliable regarding the cyathostomin species. Recent advances in proteomic tools for identification of metazoans including insects and nematodes of the genus Trichinella will be evaluated for suitability to diagnose cyathostomins. Future research should focus on the comparative analysis of morphological, molecular and proteomic data from the same cyathostomin specimen to optimize tools for species-specific identification.