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The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of the treatment of bovine metritis with common antibiotic and nonantibiotic treatment options. Acute puerperal metritis, a systemic and potentially painful illness with rectal temperature >39.5°C and signs of toxemia due to an infection of the uterus, occurs within 21 d after parturition. Because of the infectious nature, antibiotics are considered beneficial for the treatment of acute puerperal metritis. Each use of an antimicrobial drug, however, is associated with selective pressure for eventual emergence of resistant bacteria. The 23 trials evaluated in the course of a previously conducted systematic review were the basis for meta-analytic investigations. Selected trials were screened regarding their eligibility for the following investigations: (1) comparison of different antibiotic treatments with respect to metritis prevalence at time of re-examination, (2) efficacy of ceftiofur treatment with respect to metritis prevalence at time of re-examination, (3) comparison of efficacy of antibiotic versus nonantibiotic drugs with respect to metritis prevalence at time of re-examination, and (4) equivalence assessment of treatment effects on reproductive performance measures. Where at least 3 trials had investigated the same outcome variable and met the inclusion criteria (inclusion of a control or reference group diagnosed with metritis; reporting means and standard deviation in case of continuous data), meta-analytic investigations were carried out. Due to a shortage of comparable studies, we could not conduct investigations (1) and (3). Ceftiofur treatment of 828 metritic cows was associated with a decrease in the prevalence of metritis following treatment in comparison to 804 untreated cows. In conclusion, meta-analytic investigations uncovered a need for more high-quality studies. Furthermore, a positive effect of the most commonly used antibiotic drug, ceftiofur, for the treatment of bovine metritis could be shown. A comparison with other antibiotic or nonantibiotic treatment options could not be made.