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Morphological analysis of lungworms collected among Caprinae from Uzbekistan resulted in the identification of four species of Protostrongylidae: Protostrongylus rufescens, Protostrongylus hobmaieri, Spiculocaulus leuckarti and Cystocaulus ocreatus. The following species were recorded as definitive hosts: Ovis aries, Ovis ammon, Ovis vignei, Capra hircus, Capra falconeri and Capra sibirica. The prevalence of P. rufescens reached 45.3%, followed by S. leuckarti and C. ocreatus with 31.7% and P. hobmaieri with 16.9%. The sex ratio ranged between 1:3.1 and 1:6.2, with P. hobmaieri showing the strongest predominance of females over males. The prevalence of infection of small ruminants with protostrongylid nematodes increased with the age of the hosts. Protostrongyles use terrestrial gastropods as intermediate hosts, and infective larvae were found in the species Vallonia costata, Gibbulinopsis signata, Pupilla muscorum, Pseudonapaeus albiplicata, Pseudonapaeus sogdiana, Leucozonella ferghanica, Xeropicta candacharica, Candaharia levanderi and Macrochlamys sogdiana. Xeropicta candacharica was the most abundant gastropod and had the highest prevalence of infection with protostrongylids. Adult X. candacharica had a significantly higher infection intensity than juveniles. The epidemiology of protostrongylid infections is dynamic and subject to considerable changes. Further characterization of the interaction of protostrongylid parasites with their terrestrial gastropods as intermediate hosts and Caprinae as definitive hosts is required to understand these processes and to monitor the effects of changing ecological contexts.