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Several factors and challenges are currently as well as in future will influencing the poultry health and production. Beside the loss of consumer confidence and trust in the quality and safety of poultry meat and poultry products the emergence and re- emergency diseases will remain a continuous major challenge. Several human foodborne infections are linked to poultry. Control and/or elimination of these food borne pathogens present a great challenge for poultry industry. In addition, the increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria will also be a continuous public health hazard. The future concept of animal health will cover not only the absence of disease in birds, but also the relationship between the health of animals and their welfare. It will also take into account social, economic and ethical considerations, as well as support the achievement of a high level of environmental protection. This means that farmers, veterinarians, stockholders and all other partners involved in the production chain need to share more responsibilities. The present paper explores these points.