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Respiratory diseases of turkeys are associated with severe economic losses, due to high mortality, high medication cost, drop in egg production in layer and breeder flocks and in many case low fertility and hatchability. In breeder flocks attention must be paid to prevent infections with vertically transmitted agents such as Mycoplasmas. Early recognition and monitoring programmes are essential in managing the infections and minimizing the economic impacts.
Several pathogens are incriminated as possible cause either alone (mono-causal) or in synergy with different other micro-organisms (multi-causal) or accompanied by non-infectious factors such as climatic conditions and management related problems. Worldwide the emerging and re-emerging respiratory diseases and or infections of turkeys are Avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV), Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) and Fowl cholera (FC) infections. In addition, Avian Influenza (AI), Newcastle disease (ND) and Mycoplasma infections appear to cause problem in some countries.
The main ways to control any infectious disease are to prevent the introduction in an area supposed to be free from the infectious agent by regular biosecurity and monitoring and in case of the presence of the infection in one area measures should be taken to prevent the spread to other places. The following measures can be applied such as biosecurity, movement restriction, treatment, vaccination and in some cases eradication. The present paper it is not possible to review extensively the entire field of bacterial respiratory diseases, instead, this paper is limited to the treatment and control measures of some bacterial infections.