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    Introduction and enzootic of A/H5N1 in Egypt: Virus evolution, pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy ten years on (2016)

    Art
    Zeitschriftenartikel / wissenschaftlicher Beitrag
    Autoren
    Abdelwhab, E M
    Hassan, M K
    Abdel-Moneim, A S
    Naguib, M M
    Mostafa, A
    Hussein, I T M
    Arafa, A
    Erfan, A M
    Kilany, W H
    Agour, M G
    El-Kanawati, Z
    Hussein, H A
    Selim, A A
    Kholousy, S
    El-Naggar, H
    El-Zoghby, E F
    Samy, A
    Iqbal, M
    Eid, A
    Ibraheem, E M
    Pleschka, S
    Veits, J
    Nasef, S A
    Beer, M
    Mettenleiter, T C
    Grund, C
    Ali, M M
    Harder, T C
    Hafez, H M (WE 15)
    Quelle
    Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases; 40 — S. 80–90
    ISSN: 1567-1348
    Sprache
    Englisch
    Verweise
    DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2016.02.023
    Pubmed: 26917362
    Kontakt
    Institut für Geflügelkrankheiten

    Königsweg 63
    14163 Berlin
    Tel.+49 30 838 62676 Fax.+49 30 838 62690
    email:gefluegelkrankheiten@vetmed.fu-berlin

    Abstract / Zusammenfassung

    It is almost a decade since the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (A/H5N1) of clade 2.2.1 was introduced to Egypt in 2005, most likely, via wild birds; marking the longest endemic status of influenza viruses in poultry outside Asia. The endemic A/H5N1 in Egypt still compromises the poultry industry, poses serious hazards to public health and threatens to become potentially pandemic. The control strategies adopted for A/H5N1 in Egyptian poultry using diverse vaccines in commercialized poultry neither eliminated the virus nor did they decrease its evolutionary rate. Several virus clades have evolved, a few of them disappeared and others prevailed. Disparate evolutionary traits in both birds and humans were manifested by accumulation of clade-specific mutations across viral genomes driven by a variety of selection pressures. Viruses in vaccinated poultry populations displayed higher mutation rates at the immunogenic epitopes, promoting viral escape and reducing vaccine efficiency. On the other hand, viruses isolated from humans displayed changes in the receptor binding domain, which increased the viral affinity to bind to human-type glycan receptors. Moreover, viral pathogenicity exhibited several patterns in different hosts. This review aims to provide an overview of the viral evolution, pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy of A/H5N1 in Egypt during the last ten years.