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Most common ovarian diseases appear to be cystic or ovarian tumours. These conditions may affect health, fertility or even the life of the animal. Literature related to ovarian cysts and neoplasia in dogs was assessed to summarize studies and case series on ovarian cysts and primary ovarian tumours in regard to epidemiologic, clinical and fertility aspects. Two research papers on histopathological examination of ovarian cysts could be identified. Seven research papers on ovarian tumours were also assessed, showing inconsistent results on the frequency of occurrence of different types of neoplasia. This might be due to different definitions of diseases and different diagnostic procedures. In conclusion, scarce research has been performed on ovarian diseases in the bitch in the last decades. Many publications are based on case reports. Most quality criteria of study methodology like blinding, randomization, sensitivity and specificity of test methods are not considered in papers on ovarian diseases. In the future, a multicentre data collection of cases could help to gather more data on the incidence, clinical relevance, treatment options and prognosis of ovarian diseases.