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In my first study farmers were surveyed, who use an automated activity monitoring (AAM) system for the detection of estrus. The objective of this study was to gain an overview of current management practices for of estrus detection and to learn more about the practical aspects. The farmers were surveyed about the influences on animal environment, business processes, methods of estrus detection before and after installing the AAM, handling and overall impression of efficiency. Overall, 94.1% of surveyed managers were satisfied with the AAM and almost all of them (94.5%) would install the system again. The results show that the AAM represents a well accepted system with the potential to reduce the time required for estrus detection and the administration of hormones. In the second trial the objective was to validate the AAM and compare its efficiency to estrus detection by visual observation (VO). More specifically the efficiency and accuracy of AAM Systems were identified and the reproductive performance of cows by AAM or VO or one of the two methods (EOM) compared. In total 1,004 potential cycles were analyzed from 348 cows. Estrus detection rate (EDR) were calculated for 21 d after the voluntary waiting period (VWP + 21), 42 d (VWP + 42), and 63 d (VWP + 63). In the time period VWP + 21 (P> 0.05) the EDR differed barely between AAM (42.1%) and VO (37.3%) – but the EDR of EOM differed (56.3%, p <0.05) significantly. The estrus detection by AAM achieved an efficiency (number of correctly recognized estrues / total number of cycles * 100) of 35.6% and an accuracy (number of the estruses / (number of true + false the estruses correctly identified) * 100) of 83.8%, Visual observation (VO) led to an efficiency of 34.3% and an accuracy of 75.1%. The pregnancy rate was 200 DIM with AAM (66.8%) and EOM (68.8%) and with VO (57.1%, p <0.05). From AAM system recognized cows (P <0.05) showed a 1.37 times higher Risk to conceive than cows that were detected by VO (P <0.05). The results show that an automated activity monitoring system can support estrus detection in dairy cows. However, the exclusive use of such a system can not be recommended.