Fachbereich Veterinärmedizin



    Clinical, laboratory, radiological features and outcome of 99 dogs with leptospirosis (2006-2013) (2014)

    Knöpfler, S. (WE 20)
    Mayer-Scholl, A. (WE 20)
    Luge, E. (WE 20)
    Klopfleisch, R. (WE 20)
    Gruber, A.D. (WE 20)
    Nöckler, K. (WE 20)
    Kohn, B. (WE 20)
    24. ECVIM-CA Kongress
    Mainz, 04. – 06.09.2014
    Journal of veterinary internal medicine; 29(1) — S. 461
    ISSN: 0891-6640
    URL (Volltext): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jvim.12491/pdf
    DOI: 10.1111/jvim.12491
    Klinik für kleine Haustiere

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    Abstract / Zusammenfassung

    Leptospirosis, a zoonotic bacterial disease with a worldwide distribution, is a re-emerging disease in humans and dogs. Acute renal and hepatic failure are the most frequently reported clinical manifestations of canine leptospirosis. The aim of this study was to describe clinical, laboratory and radiological features, the outcome as well as the distribution of Leptospira serogroups in dogs with leptospirosis (2006-2013). Medical records of dogs diagnosed with leptospirosis were evaluated retrospectively. Diagnoses were based on microscopic agglutination testing (MAT), blood/urine PCR, and histopathology (Levaditi staining). MAT-titers ≥ 1:800 against non-vaccineand ≥ 1:3200 against vaccine serovars or a 4-fold rise of titers within 2-3 weeks were considered diagnostic. 99 dogs met the inclusion criteria. In 72 dogs diagnostic MAT-titers were present (mainly against serogroups Grippotyphosa (65%), Australis (61%), and Pomona (60%). At initial presentation, the most common clinical signs were lethargy (96%), anorexia (88%), vomitus (85%), a painful abdomen (39%), diarrhea (38%), oliguria (27%), tachypnea (26%), delayed capillary refill time (18%), pale mucous membranes (17%), fever (15%), hypothermia (15%), and icteric mucous membranes (10%). Abnormal findings of the CBC included anemia (63%), thrombocytopenia (62%) and leukocytosis (57%). Biochemistry abnormalities included increased creatinine concentrations (82%), increased liver enzyme activities (80%), hyperbilirubinemia (70%), hyperphosphatemia (67%), hyponatremia (63%), and hypoalbuminemia (55%). Urinalysis often revealed glucosuria (77%) and an elevated urineprotein/creatinine-ratio (75%). Radiological pulmonary changes were detected in 57% of the dogs initially or during the course of disease. 32 dogs died or were euthanized, 24 of them due to “leptospiral pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome”. In this study, non-vaccine erogroups were the most common serogroups detected by MAT. In the majority of patients renal (95%) and/or hepatic (93%) disease was detected. A pulmonary form of leptospirosis was present in 57% of the dogs. Lung involvement represented a severe complication causing increased mortality depending on the severity of respiratory signs.