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Fish, like mammals, can be affected by neoplastic proliferations. As yet, there are only a very small number of studies reporting on the occurrence of tumours in koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi and only sporadic reports on the nature of the tumours or on risk factors associated with their development. Between 2008 and 2012, koi with abdominal swelling were examined pathologically: neoplastic lesions were diagnosed and classified histologically. We evaluated possible risk factors for the development of these internal neoplasms in koi carp in Switzerland, using an online 2-part questionnaire sent to fish keepers with koi affected by internal tumours and to fish keepers who had not previously reported any affected koi. Part 1 addressed all participants and focused on general information about koi husbandry and pond technical data; Part 2 addressed participants that had one or several case(s) of koi with internal tumour(s) between 2008 and 2012, and consisted of specific questions about affected koi. A total of 112 internal tumours were reported by the 353 koi keepers participating in the survey. Analysis of the obtained data revealed that tumour occurrence was significantly associated with the location (indoors vs. outdoors) and volume of the pond, frequency of water changes, origin of the koi, number of koi kept in a pond and the use of certain pond disinfectant/medication products. Our results contribute to the identification of possible risk factors, which in turn could help to establish prophylactic measures in order to reduce the occurrence of internal neoplasms in koi.