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Intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke and vascular dementia are age- and hypertension-associated manifestations of human cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). Cerebral microvessels are formed by endothelial cells (ECs), which are connected through tight junctions, adherens junctions, and stabilizing basement membrane structures. These endothelial connections ensure both vessel stability and blood-brain barrier (BBB) functions, the latter enabling selective exchange of ions, bioactive molecules, and cells between the bloodstream and brain tissue. Srf(iECKO) mice, permitting conditional EC-specific depletion of the transcription factor Serum Response Factor (SRF), suffer from loss of BBB integrity and intracerebral hemorrhaging. Cerebral microbleeds and larger hemorrhages developed upon postnatal and adult depletion of either SRF or its cofactors Myocardin Related Transcription Factor (MRTF-A/-B), revealing essential requirements of ongoing SRF/MRTF activity for maintenance of cerebral small vessel integrity. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging allowed detection, localization, and time-resolved quantification of BBB permeability and hemorrhage formation in Srf(iECKO) brains. At the molecular level, direct and indirect SRF/MRTF target genes, encoding structural components of tight junctions (Claudins and ZO proteins), adherens junctions (VE-cadherin, α-Actinin), and the basement membrane (Collagen IV), were down-regulated upon SRF depletion. These results identify SRF and its MRTF cofactors as major transcriptional regulators of EC junctional stability, guaranteeing physiological functions of the cerebral microvasculature. We hypothesize that impairments in SRF/MRTF activity contribute to human SVD pathology.