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925 cattles from three farms in Brandenburg and the patients of the clinic for ruminants (FU Berlin) were available for this study. The animals were divided into three groups of different ages: unweaned calves, weaning calves, and dairy cows. The farms had different housing conditions and even different histories in regard of eye diseases. The animals were submitted to a general and an ophthalmological examination. Pathological findings could be made in the eyes of 41,8 % of the examinated animals. 66,4 % of these both eyes were affected. Lens alterations were the most frequent diagnosis. They could be seen as opacities with different localization, size, and shape. Corneal lesions mostly appeared as circumscribed opacities which were corneal scars. In addition many different findings could be diagnosed, for instance conjuctivitis, exophthalmos, enophthalmos, bilateral convergent strabismus with exophthalmos, or subconjuctival haemorrhages. Some pathological findings had a various distribution in different groups of age and in animals coming from several farms. Cattles presented with an ocular disease were put into a special group. They showed some interesting eye diseases including the both most important eye diseases in cattle (infectious bovine Keratoconjunctivitis, Cancer eye).
The eyes of 486 cattles were examined at slaughterhouse. 70 (14,4 %) of these animals had pathological findings. Their eyes were taken for histopathological examination. First they were examined ophthalmologically. Then they were fixated in YANNOFF’s solution. A pathological anatomical examination followed. After this they were embedded in paraffin and cutted and stained with haemalum eosin. Lens and corneal alterations were the most frequent findings in macroscopic examination. The macroscopic examination techniques mostly were high concurrant. The histological alterations mostly appeared as focal degeneration or necrosis of lens tissue. Furthermore alterations of the cornea appeared as edema in proper tunic, keratitis, or stroma degeneration. In addition the histological examination showed fibrinous exudation in the anterior and posterior chamber, inflammation in various parts of the eye, dystrophic calcinosis and metaplastic chondrification of posterior sclera, and peribulbar hematomas. The comparison of macroscopic and histological examination techniques showed comparable results between 45,5 % and 58,5 % (mean values). The eyes of 57 female German Black and White cattle were available for the ultrasonic investigations. The ultrasound generator Scanner 100 with foot switch and a 6.0 MHz linear array endorectal transducer was used. In addition an Sonokit offset was applied. The transpalpebral technique was used for the investigations. The globes were examined in horizontal and vertical planes along the central optic axis. In each position measurements were taken three times. In ultrasonographic pictures the cornea was shown as two echoic parallel lines. The anterior chamber was an anechoic space where reverberation artefacts several times could be seen. The iris and ciliary body imagined as moderate echoic structures. The lens appeared as two curvolinear echogenities representing the anterior and posterior lens capsules. The vitreous body appeared as an anechoic space. The sclera imaged as a high echoic structure. It was not possible to separate its single layers. The optic nerve could be seen as a hypoechoic zone with parallel bounds. All pictures showed a broad band-like artefact descending from the offset. The following measurements were taken: corneal thickness, aqueous chamber depth, lens diameter, vitreous chamber depth, thickness of sclera, diameter between cornea and posterior lens pole, and axis bulbi. In most cases there were no significant differences between the mean values of right and left eye or horizontal and vertical plane.