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Postpartum diseases belong to the economical most important diseases of sows. They affect animal health and welfare of sows and piglets. Fast diagnosis and effective medical treatment are necessary to prevent economical losses. Routine measurement of rectal temperature postpartum is an often advised and used diagnostic method for early detection of infectious diseases in sows. The first study was conducted on a commercial pig farm with 1,370 sows in Brandenburg in June 2011. The primary objective was to evaluate the influence of different factors on measures of rectal temperatures (e.g. investigator, thermometer, penetration depth of the thermometer). Thirty sows were used in this experiment. The data showed that rectal temperature can be measured repeatably (mean ± standard deviation = 38.7 ± 0.1°C, Coefficient of variation = 0.2%). Different investigators or thermometers measured low differences (0.0°C and 0.1°C). The penetration depth of the thermometer can influence the result (difference of 0.4°C at 5 and 10 cm). The secondary objective was to validate the application of a temperature logger to continuously measure vaginal temperature. Rectal and vaginal temperatures measured in 21 sows were highly correlated (r = 0.80, P<0.01) with a mean difference of 0.3°C. The data show that temperature loggers inserted in the vagina can provide a reasonable measure of body temperature in early puerperal sows. The objective of a subsequent study was to monitor vaginal temperature via loggers in sows for a longer duration to investigate the course of the body temperature in early postpartum sows and identify possible factors that may influence body temperature. The study was conducted on the same commercial pig farm from January to May 2013. A total of 156 sows received a vaginal temperature logger for 6 days postpartum and 43 sows remained without logger as negative control group. Vaginal temperature was measured continuously every 10 min. During the trial rectal temperature, feed intake, general condition and vaginal discharge were evaluated and noticed daily. The sows showed a clear circadian rhythm of vaginal temperature with minimal temperatures of 39.0 ± 0.5°C from 5:00 h to 6:00 h and maximum temperatures of 39.4 ± 0.5°C from 13:00 h to 19:00 h (P < 0.05). The day postpartum (P < 0.01), time of day (P < 0.01), age (P < 0.01), general condition (P < 0.01), vaginal discharge (P < 0.01) and medical treatment (P < 0.01) had an effect on rectal and vaginal temperature. The measurement of vaginal temperature with a temperature logger in early postpartum sows provides continuous and non-invasive monitoring of body temperature. A high percentage of sows (40.4%) had a vaginal temperature over 40.3°C in the first 6 days postpartum but only 12% of these sows were treated with antibiotics. The second part of the study was the investigation of two acute phase proteins in sows postpartum and the relationship to body temperature. Blood sample from 199 sows were collected at d 7 and the serum concentration of haptoglobin and Creactive protein determined. The median of haptoglobin and C-reactive protein were 1.83 mg/mL (interqartile range: 1.42 to 2.13 mg/mL) and 60.0 μg/mL (interqartile range: 15.2 to 216.5 μg/mL). There was no correlation between Haptoglobin and C-reactive protein (ρ = 0.11, P = 0.12) nor a difference between sows categorized as ill and healthy sows in Haptoglobin (P = 0.1) and C-reactive protein concentration (P = 0.34). Sows with Haptoglobin > 2.13 mg/mL had higher rectal temperatures than sows with Haptoglobin ≤ 2.13 mg/mL (P = 0.037) but there was no difference in vaginal temperatures (P = 0.24). Sows with C-reactive protein > 216.5 μg/mL had higher rectal (P = 0.017) and vaginal temperature (P = 0.02) than sows with C-reactive protein ≤ 216.5 μg/mL. As demonstrated in this study haptoglobin and C-reactive protein do not support the detection of early postpartum disorders in sows. Summing up, further research is necessary to improve the diagnosis of PPDS in sows.