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Currently, there is an ongoing discussion about the question whether the emergence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms (MDRO) among humans is due to transfer of these bacteria from animals.
This review summarizes data on the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing enterobacteria in animals and humans, and describes knowledge about transmission pathways.
After a scientific literature analysis, relevant articles were identified by screening of titles and abstracts, amended by publications of infection control authorities and the respective reference lists.
MDRO are both transmitted in the nosocomial setting and are increasingly detected as sources of infection outside healthcare facilities.
Due to new transmission pathways of MDRO an inter-disciplinary approach towards prevention is necessary, involving medical, pharmaceutical and veterinary expertise.