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A 10-month-old female Parson Jack Russell Terrier was euthanatized because of therapy-resistant ataxia, hypermetria, and deafness that had first been observed at 10 weeks of age. Severe, bilateral, symmetrical neuronal degeneration and mineralization of the brain were found in the cochlear and cerebellar nuclei, dorsal areas of the medulla oblongata, the vestibulocochlear nerve, plexus choroideus, and within the granule cell layer of the ventral cerebellar hemispheres. The mineralized deposits were located free in the parenchyma, around intact or degenerate neurons, in myocytes of small- and medium-sized arteries, and around capillaries. Hepatocytes and cardiac myocytes showed oncocytotic change with increased numbers of enlarged or misshapen mitochondria filled with densely packed cristae and electron-dense inclusions. Skeletal myocytes had only minor increases in the number of mitochondria. The microscopic and ultrastructural lesions were consistent with mitochondrial encephalopathy with similarities to mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes in humans.