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Bone binding bioactive implants play an important role in bone reconstruction. In this study, an attempt was made to further improve the process of bone healing. Two different types of bioactive implant material were coated with BMP (bone morphogenetic protein). One material consists of an amorphous glass phase, and the other is composed of a crystalline glass-ceramic. Each group of material was used uncoated as well as coated with BMP. The implants were implanted without "press fit" (to prevent the detachment of the coating) into the femur of rabbits. After 7, 28, 84 or 168 days, they were explanted and analyzed by different methods. In a total 96 implants were used. Healing ocurred without any complications.
It could be shown that the treatment of defects in the femur of rabbits with BMP Adsorption-surface-coating on bioglass ® like implants stimulates bone growth. The implants with BMP coating showed an bridging of the gap already after 28 days. The highest implant-bone-contact could be observed in the glasses with BMP and after 84 days the glasses with BMP still had the highest implant-bone-contact.
As a result of this study it was shown, that glasses consistently showed better results than glass-ceramics, independent of a coating. As mentioned above, the coated glass implants qualify to be incorporated faster than uncoated samples. In the glass-ceramics however, there were some unpredictable results, for example the lower implant-bone-contact in the glass-ceramics with BMP starting from 84 days in comparison to the glass-ceramics without BMP.
The results found here are important for the possible introduction and approval for clinical application of the studied implants in the reconstruction of bone defects in orthopedics and for anchoring of endoprostheses for example in dentistry. Particularly promising are the implants with the BMP- coating. These could possibly replace the current gold standard in the future.