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Chronic diarrhea and vomiting are common clinical signs in dogs. Primary (e.g., inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, mechanical, or other) and secondary gastrointestinal diseases (e.g., exocrine pancreatic, hepatic, renal, or endocrine disease) are possible underlying causes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the final diagnoses in dogs with chronic diarrhea and/or vomiting and to determine the prevalence of various primary and secondary gastrointestinal diseases in dogs with these gastrointestinal signs. Medical records of 209 dogs presented between July 2011 and August 2013 with chronic diarrhea (D), vomiting (V) or both (diarrhea and vomiting [VD]) were retrospectively reviewed. Dogs
were included if a minimum work-up (hematology, plasma biochemistry profile, and fecal parasitology) had been performed and if a final diagnosis was recorded (155/209). A primary gastrointestinal disease was recorded in 83% of the cases (129/155) and included inflammatory diseases (90/129: food responsive enteropathy , antibiotic responsive enteropathy , idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease , steroid responsive enteropathy , protein-losing enteropathy of unknown etiology ), infectious diseases (23/129: giardiasis , leishmaniosis , ascariasis , protothecosis ), neoplastic diseases (13/129: intestinal lymphoma , adenocarcinoma , leiomyoma , histiocytic sarcoma ) and, in one dog each, drug related enteropathy, mechanical obstruction, and diaphragmatic rupture. A secondary gastrointestinal disease was less frequently diagnosed (17%, 26/155: chronic pancreatitis , portosystemic shunt , hepatopathy , exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, hypoadrenocorticism, polyendocrinopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and leukemia in one dog each). In total, 44% of the dogs were presented with D (69/155) followed by 33% with VD (51/155), and 23% with V (35/155). D and VD were significantly more frequent in dogs with primary gastrointestinal disease (D: 61/129, VD: 46/129), compared to dogs with secondary gastrointestinal disease (D: 8/26; VD: 5/26; p = 0.001, Chi square test). V was significantly more common in dogs with secondary gastrointestinal disease (13/26) as compared to dogs with primary gastrointestinal disease (22/129; p = 0.001). In this study, food responsive enteropathy (36%) was the most commonly diagnosed cause of chronic gastrointestinal signs. Chronic pancreatitis was the most frequent cause of secondary gastrointestinal disease (46%). Diarrhea was significantly associated with primary and vomiting with secondary gastrointestinal disease.