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Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) was detected in an Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), which was euthanized because of severe neurological disease. Encephalitis was suspected and EHV-1 DNA was detected in brain, lung, and spleen tissues. The viral IR6 protein was detected in lung tissues by Western blot analysis. Phylogenetic analyses of EHV-1 sequences amplified from various tissues was nearly identical to one recently described that resulted in both non-fatal and fatal encephalitis in polar bears. This represents transmission of EHV-1 to a species that is not naturally sympatric with the natural host of the virus and broadens the host range to Asian non-equid perissodactyls.