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    Will technology provide solutions for drug resistance in veterinary helminths? (2005)

    Art
    Zeitschriftenartikel / wissenschaftlicher Beitrag
    Autoren
    von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg (WE 13)
    Blackhall, William
    Quelle
    Veterinary Parasitology; 132(3/4) — S. 223–239
    ISSN: 0304-4017
    Sprache
    Englisch
    Verweise
    Pubmed: 16118040
    Kontakt
    Institut für Parasitologie und Tropenveterinärmedizin

    Robert-von-Ostertag-Str. 7-13
    Gebäude 35, 22, 23
    14163 Berlin
    Tel.+49 30 838 62310 Fax.+49 30 838 62323
    email:parasitologie@vetmed.fu-berlin.de

    Abstract / Zusammenfassung

    Drug resistance in veterinary helminths affects a growing number of livestock producers on a global basis. The parasites infecting the major species of livestock are presently showing resistance in varying degrees to the commonly used classes of anthelmintics. The degree and extent of this problem especially with respect to multidrug resistance (MDR) in nematode populations is likely to increase. Finding solutions to the spread of resistance requires knowledge of the drugs' modes of action and mechanisms of resistance. This knowledge can then be applied to detect and monitor the state of resistance. Here we present a brief overview of resistance mechanisms and some of the technologies being used to study them. We also discuss some of the strategies for slowing the spread of resistance. The issue of reversal of drug resistance is analysed under consideration of recent progress in the field of MDR reversal in non-infectious diseases. Finally, we propose an application of currently available technologies that could assist in the detection and monitoring of anthelmintic resistance. Taking into account the significant complexity of the genetic mechanism of anthelmintic resistance in and between the various species, we suggest to undertake a co-ordinated effort to systematically identify anthelmintic-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the most important helminth parasites. Monitoring the state of resistance in field populations could be achieved with a SNP-based protocol for genotyping the many genes known or suspected to contribute to the modes of action or mechanisms of resistance to the various classes of anthelmintics. If significant associations between genotypes and phenotypes exist within a species, then a single test with sufficient SNPs could potentially have universal applicability. These could then be explored for the development of new molecular diagnostic procedures. New classes of anthelmintics are needed, but until they are developed and available to the producers, technology can assist to achieve the goal of better sustainability in anthelmintic usage.