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A peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for discrimination between serological responses to equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) and 4 (EHV-4) was developed. Three and four peptides for EHV-1 and EHV-4, respectively, were designed and studied initially in the ELISA using sera from foals infected experimentally. The most promising peptide pair, derived from EHV-1 glycoprotein E and EHV-4 glycoprotein G, was evaluated further using acute and convalescent sera from horses infected experimentally and naturally as well as a panel of horse field sera. Ten pre- and post-vaccination serum pairs were similarly tested in the type-specific ELISA. The peptide ELISA was able to identify horses which had been infected with EHV-1 or EHV-4 as derived from the results using acute and convalescent sera collected from natural outbreaks. When applied to a set of field samples, the assay proved robust with respect to determining the EHV-1 and EHV-4 antibody status. Also, the peptide ELISA was able to detect type-specific seroconversion for EHV-1 in vaccinated animals. With further validation, the EHV-1/EHV-4 peptide ELISA described in this study could serve as a reliable and cost-effective alternative to current methods for serological EHV-1 and EHV-4 diagnosis.