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Proteomics is the application of rapidly evolving high-throughput technologies that enable analysis of proteins on a large scale. Recent advances in instrumentation have allowed detection, identification, and quantification of proteins with unparalleled precision and reproducibility, and this, in combination with novel bioinformatics tools, has helped to move proteomics from the simple cataloging of expressed proteins toward discovery of operating mechanisms in the biological systems. Proteomics holds great promise for advancing the understanding of viral pathogenesis, immunity, and the dynamics of virus-host protein interactions. Nevertheless, only a small number of proteomic studies have been done on animal viruses and avian herpesviruses in particular. This review summarizes the basic concepts and technologies used in proteomics and highlights the most successful applications of different proteomic approaches that resulted in identification of new virus-host protein interactions, mechanisms of genetic resistance and susceptibility to Marek's disease in chickens, and profiling and analysis of proteomes of Gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2), GaHV-3, and Meleagrid herpesvirus 1 infected or transformed cells. This review also discusses current limitations and potential future applications of proteomic methods in avian herpesvirus research.