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The aims of the present study were to elucidate the expression profiles of leukotriene (LT) pathway mRNA transcription and to determine the possible interaction of LT and prostaglandin (PTG) pathways genes in equine endometrium during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Endometrial biopsies were obtained from mares on the day of ovulation (d0), at late diestrous (LD, n = 4), and after luteolysis in the estrus phase (AL, n = 4) of the cycle. Biopsies were also taken on Days 14 (P14; n = 4), 18 (P18, n = 4), and 22 (P22, n = 4) during early pregnancy that were comparable days to cyclic sampling days. A mixed model was fitted on the normalized relative mRNA levels, quantified by qPCR in duplicate, and least significant difference test was employed to detect significantly different group(s). In addition, to determine the degree of contribution of each gene to separation of treatment groups, the multivariate projection method partial least square regression discriminant analysis was used. The expression of 5-lipoxygenase mRNA was greater on d0 and LD, declined at AL, and was suppressed by early pregnancy. Leukotriene A4 hydrolase mRNA expression increased at LD and during early pregnancy, but was significantly greater at LD compared with P14. The expression of LT C4 synthase mRNA was only induced at LD. Cysteinyl leukotriene receptors (CysLT1 and CysLT2) mRNA expressions were decreased by both cyclic changes and early pregnancy, whereas 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein and B leukotriene receptor mRNA expressions were not affected by early pregnancy or stages of the estrous cycle. Partial least square discriminant analysis suggests that LT and PTG pathway enzymes and receptors appear to behave similarly in terms of mRNA expression. In conclusion, the expression profiles of LT pathway genes are demonstrated in equine endometrium for the first time by the present study, and the present data suggest that LT pathway mRNA transcriptions are tightly regulated during early pregnancy in mares.