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The aim of this study was to determine signs of subclinical endometritis found by ultrasound that are associated with reduced fertility in dairy cows. The maximum diameter of the uterine lumen was determined by ultrasound in 324 cows without clinical signs of endometritis after evaluation of the genital tract 21 to 27 days postpartum. Cows were classified into healthy or with subclinical endometritis by three threshold values for the maximum uterine lumen diameter of 0.2 cm, 0.5 cm or 0.8 cm. Examinations by rectal palpation and ultrasound as well as classifications were repeated 14 days later. In addition, ovaries were scanned by ultrasound to determine the stage of the estrous cycle. In a subgroup of 103 cows the echotexture of the uterus and its contents was evaluated. In these cows the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis was performed by a scoring system. The diameter of the uterine lumen was significantly affected by stage of the estrous cycle at the time of examination. However, no effects were found for the stage of the cycle at the time of examination on subsequent reproductive performance. A uterine lumen with a maximum diameter of more than 0.2 cm showed a significant negative association with conception rate and proportion of cows pregnant. Classification based on higher threshold values did not reveal an association with reproductive performance. Echogenic content in the uterus also decreased reproductive performance. A classification based on the echotexture of the uterus and its contents revealed significant differences between healthy cows and cows with subclinical endometritis regarding the proportion of cows inseminated and pregnant. The results of this study showed that the diagnostic of bovine endometritis should be broadend by ultrasonography. The definition of subclinical endometritis diagnosed by means of ultrasonography has to be evaluated in further studies.