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Reduced reproductive performance in dairy cattle is often caused by uterine disorders. Beside acute metritis and chronic endometritis recent reports on a negative impact of subclinical endometritis on reproductive performance have been published. Diagnosis of subclinical endometritis can be performed by ultrasonography or cytological examination of the uterus. The cytological examination is based on uterine lavage or the cytobrush-method. Prevalence of subclinical endometritis in different studies ranges from 16 to 90 percent and depends on the diagnostic method and the time postpartum when the examination is performed. Affected cows showed significantly decreased conception rates, prolonged days to first service and days open as well as a reduced number of cows pregnant. Studies on the treatment of subclinical endometritis with prostaglandin F2alpha or analogues, intrauterine antibiotics or proteolytic enzymes showed heterogeneous results and do not allows valid recommendations for veterinary practice.