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The present work outlines molecular diagnostic examinations for detection of poxvirus infection in chickens and turkeys in Germany over a time period of twelve years. Diagnostic samples suspected for fowlpox were investigated using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in combination with restriction enzyme analysis (REA) for presence of fowlpox virus (FPV) specific DNA. For a long period of time fowlpox did not play a role in commercial poultry farms in Germany. Beginning in 1999 an increasing number of new infections was identified. During the whole study period FPV specific DNA was detected in 92 out of 192 investigated samples. Positive samples were derived especially from layer hens but also from broiler breeders, turkey breeders, and meat turkeys. Thereby, a differentiation between isolates of chickens and turkeys by restriction enzyme analysis (REA) was not possible. As possible explanations for this reemergence, especially the lack of prophylactic vaccination in the past as well as an increasing number of alternative rearing systems has to be considered. Beginning in 2003, a downward tendency was observed following intensification of prophylactic vaccination.