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    Polymelous layer chick displaying additional malformations of the hind gut:
    case report and in-depth review of related literature (2012)

    Art
    Zeitschriftenartikel / wissenschaftlicher Beitrag
    Autoren
    Hirschberg, R M (WE 1)
    Saleh, M
    Kaiser, S
    Lierz, M
    Hafez, H M (WE 15)
    Bragulla, H H
    Quelle
    Anatomia, histologia, embryologia; 41(4) — S. 262–273
    ISSN: 0340-2096
    Sprache
    Englisch
    Verweise
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0264.2011.01130.x
    Pubmed: 22250842
    Kontakt
    Institut für Geflügelkrankheiten

    Königsweg 63
    14163 Berlin
    +49 30 838 62676
    gefluegelkrankheiten@vetmed.fu-berlin

    Abstract / Zusammenfassung

    A case report of a male 6-day-old male layer chick featuring incomplete polymelia of the hind limbs and hindgut malformations is presented. The chick was submitted to computed tomography (CT) examination and subsequent anatomical dissection. Apart from the two supernumerary hind limbs, the anatomical dissection revealed additional hindgut alterations: three uniform-sized caeca flanked the ileum, and the rectum branched into paired cloacae. The supernumerary hind limbs were localized caudal to the normal hind limbs in an inverted position and were attached to pelvic girdle elements and to a curtate pygostyle. They featured a prominent unpaired femur besides paired tibiotarsi, tarsometatarsi and species-specific phalanges of the toes. Additionally, two separate bones attached to the caudoventral aspect of the regular hip bones were developed. The supernumerary limbs were in part mobile and received nerve and vascular supply. Digital 3D-reconstruction based on the CT datasets revealed the osseous components of the malformed body parts. The possible morphogenesis including an in-depth literature review and the clinical implications of the reported malformations are discussed.